The Grammar of Polarity : Pragmatics, Sensitivity, and the Logic of Scales.
Surveys a wide variety of polarity items, both negative and positive, commonly found in English and other languages.
Cambridge University Press,
|Series:||Cambridge studies in linguistics.
- Cover; THE GRAMMAR OF POLARITY; CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN LINGUISTICS; Title; Copyright; The more that I philosophize The more and more I realize That little things which I despise, Like peanut shells and grains of sand, Are very hard, hard to understand.; Contents; Figures; Tables; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1 Trivium pursuits; 1.1 As above, so below; 1.2 A quirk of grammar or a trick of thought?; 1.3 The hypothesis: sensitivity as lexical pragmatics; 1.4 Putting pragmatics in its place; 1.5 Pragmatics in a usage-based grammar; 2 Ex nihilo: the grammar of polarity.
- 2.1 The simplicity of negation2.2 The complexity of polarity; 2.3 The phenomenon of polarity sensitivity; 2.3.1 Polarity items; 2.3.2 Polarity contexts; 2.4 Basic mysteries: three problems of polarity sensitivity; 2.5 Varieties of polarity sensitivity; 2.5.1 Semi-polarity items, sometime polarity items; 2.5.2 Polarity sensitive morphology; 2.5.3 Inherently negative idioms; 2.5.4 Negative concord and the Jespersen cycle; 2.6 The Scalar Model of polarity sensitivity; 3 Licensing and the logic of scalar models; 3.1 What is a polarity context?; 3.2 Fauconnier's insight.
- 3.3 The natural logic of scalar models3.3.1 Scalar reasoning and scalar implicature; 3.3.2 Cognitive foundations: conceptual scales; 3.3.3 Inferential mechanisms: scalar models; 3.4 Affectivity as a mode of scalar construal; 3.5 Syntactic constraints on scalar construals; 3.5.1 The precedence condition; 3.5.2 Intervention effects; 3.5.3 The paradox of double negation; 3.6 Polarity contexts are mental spaces; 4 Sensitivity as inherent scalar semantics; 4.1 Scalar operators; 4.2 Two scalar properties; 4.3 Four sorts of polarity items; 4.4 Sensitivity and the square of opposition.
- 4.5 The conspiracy theory of polarity licensing4.6 The anomaly of inverted polarity items; 5 The elements of sensitivity; 5.1 The Informativity Hypothesis; 5.2 Quantitative semantics; 5.3 The pragmatics of informativity; 5.4 Assessing informativity; 5.4.1 Diagnostics of emphasis; 5.4.2 Diagnostics of attenuation; 5.5 Rhetorical coherence in polarity contexts; 5.6 Compositional sensitivities; 6 The scalar lexicon; 6.1 Paradigmatic predictions of the Scalar Model; 6.2 Modal polarity items; 6.3 Connective polarity items; 6.4 Aspectual polarity items; 6.5 The limits of diversity.
- 7 The family of English indefinite polarity items7.1 The many splendors of any; 7.2 Indefinite family resemblances; 7.3 Emphatic construals of indefinite any; 7.4 The effects of phantom reference; 7.5 Some uses of some; 7.6 The limits of free choice; 7.7 Indefinite conclusions; 8 Polarity and the architecture of grammar; 8.1 High stakes Grammar; 8.2 Terms of the debate; 8.3 The syntactic approach; 8.3.1 Progovac: polarity and binding; 8.3.2 Linebarger: syntax and pragmatics; 8.4 Semantic approaches; 8.4.1 The Monotonicity Thesis; 8.4.2 A hierarchy of negative contexts.