Theoretical and applied aspects of biomass torrefaction : for biofuels and value-added products /

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Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Gent, Stephen (Author), Twedt, Michael (Author), Gerometta, Christina (Author), Almberg, Evan (Author)
Format: eBook
Language:English
Published: Oxford, United Kingdom : Elsevier : Butterworth-Heinemann, [2017]
Subjects:
Online Access:CONNECT
CONNECT
Table of Contents:
  • Front Cover; Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction: For Biofuels and Value-Added Products; Copyright; Dedication; Contents; Biographies of Authors; Acknowledgments; Chapter One: Introduction to Thermochemical Conversion Processes; 1.1. Motivation-A Need for Sustainable Energy and Products; 1.2. Biobased Energy and Products; 1.3. Conversion Pathways; 1.4. Classifying Thermochemical Conversion Pathways; 1.4.1. Combustion; 1.4.2. Gasification; 1.4.3. Pyrolysis; 1.4.4. Torrefaction; 1.5. History of Torrefaction; 1.6. Units; 1.7. Intent of This Book; End of Chapter Questions
  • 3.1. Temperature and Residence Time's Implications on Torrefaction3.1.1. Mass and Energy Yield; 3.1.2. Thermal Degradation Behavior of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks; Degree of Torrefaction; 3.2. Chemical Reactions; 3.2.1. Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics; 3.2.2. Product Distribution and Composition; 3.2.3. Effects of Process Parameters; 3.3. Torrefaction Model; 3.3.1. Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics; Volatile Decomposition; 3.4. Properties of Torrefied Biomass; 3.4.1. Pelletization and Grindability; 3.4.2. Energy Content; 3.4.3. Elemental Analysis; 3.4.4. Proximate Analysis; References
  • Chapter Four: Design Practices for Torrefaction Systems4.1. Grinding and Drying Systems; 4.2. Reactor Designs; 4.2.1. Batch System; 4.2.2. Continuous Flow System; 4.3. Energy Capture and Reclamation; 4.3.1. Heat Recovery System; 4.3.2. Torr-Gas Capture and Utilization; 4.4. Post-Processing of Torrefied Products; 4.5. Examples of Torrefaction Systems; End of Chapter Questions; References; Further Reading; Chapter Five: Techno-Economic Considerations of Torrefaction; 5.1. Markets for Torrefied Products; 5.2. Adding Value to Biomass; 5.2.1. Torrefied Biomass; 5.2.2. Torr-Gas; 5.3. Hydrophobicity
  • 5.4. Additional Value-Added Bioproducts5.5. System Economics/Calculating the Overall Rate of Return; Process Overview; System Energy Requirements; Heat Recovery; Torr-Gas Energy Recovery; 5.5.1. Techno-Economic Parameters; Capital Investment; Harvest and Logistics; Operating and Maintenance; 5.5.2. Rate of Return; 5.6. Techno-Economic Examples of Torrefaction Systems; 5.6.1. Example 1: Torrefaction System With Heat Recovery and Torr-Gas Reclamation; 5.6.2. Example 2: Impact of Energy Recovery on a Torrefaction System; 5.6.3. Example 3: Economic Aspects of Torrefaction Systems; Example 3a