John Cage

Cage in 1988 John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer and music theorist. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential composers of the 20th century. He was also instrumental in the development of modern dance, mostly through his association with choreographer Merce Cunningham, who was also Cage's romantic partner for most of their lives.

Cage's 1952 composition ''4′33″'' is performed in the absence of deliberate sound; musicians who present the work do nothing aside from being present for the duration specified by the title. The content of the composition is intended to be the sounds of the environment heard by the audience during performance. The work's challenge to assumed definitions about musicianship and musical experience made it a popular and controversial topic both in musicology and the broader aesthetics of art and performance. Cage was also a pioneer of the prepared piano (a piano with its sound altered by objects placed between or on its strings or hammers), for which he wrote numerous dance-related works and a few concert pieces. These include ''Sonatas and Interludes'' (1946–48).

His teachers included Henry Cowell (1933) and Arnold Schoenberg (1933–35), both known for their radical innovations in music, but Cage's major influences lay in various East and South Asian cultures. Through his studies of Indian philosophy and Zen Buddhism in the late 1940s, Cage came to the idea of aleatoric or chance-controlled music, which he started composing in 1951. The ''I Ching'', an ancient Chinese classic text decision-making tool, which uses chance operations to suggest answers to questions one may pose, became Cage's standard composition tool for the rest of his life. In a 1957 lecture, ''Experimental Music'', he described music as "a purposeless play" which is "an affirmation of life – not an attempt to bring order out of chaos nor to suggest improvements in creation, but simply a way of waking up to the very life we're living". Provided by Wikipedia
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by Cage, John.
Published 1976
CD Audio
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by Cage, John.
Published 1969
Book
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by Cage, John.
Published 2002
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by Cage, John
Published 2015
Musical Score Book
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by Cage, John
Published 1994
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46
by Cage, John
Published 1990
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47
by Cage, John.
Published 1961
Book
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by Cage, John
Published 2019
Book
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by Cage, John.
Published 1993
Book
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by Cage, John.
Published 1962
Book
51
by Cage, John.
Published 1961
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52
by Cage, John.
Published 1960
Musical Score Book
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by Cage, John.
Published 2001
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eBook
56
by Cage, John.
Published 1999
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Electronic Audio
57
by Cage, John.
Published 2010
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58
by Cage, John.
Published 2003
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by Cage, John.
Published 1964
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Electronic Video
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by Cage, John.
Published 2013
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