AustriaAustria (, ; ), officially the Republic of Austria (, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bundesländer''), one of which is Vienna, Austria's capital and largest city. It is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. Austria occupies an area of and has a population of nearly 9 million people. While German is the country's official language, many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects.
Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation, but pursued its own course independently of the other German states following its defeat in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. In 1867, in compromise with Hungary, the Austria-Hungary Dual Monarchy was established.
Austria was involved in World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the presumptive successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne. After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of union with Germany, but the Allied Powers did not support the new state and it remained unrecognized. In 1919 the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who became the Chancellor of the German Reich, achieved the annexation of Austria by the Anschluss. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.
Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government. Major urban areas of Austria include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms. The country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators.
The Second Republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995. It plays host to the OSCE and OPEC and is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. Provided by Wikipedia
Taxation : Foreign Account Tax Compliance : agreement between the United States of America and Austria, signed at Vienna, April 29, 2014, with annexes.
Book Government Document
Published 1949“...Geologische Gesellschaft in Wien (Austria)...”
See additional print holdings information
Freely Accessible Science Journals: 1943 to 1974
Logic Colloquium '01 : proceedings of the Annual European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, held in Vienna, Austria, August 6-11, 2001 / edited by Matthias Baaz...
Published 2016“...Logic Colloquium Vienna, Austria)...”
Alfred Kubin [by] Wieland Schmied. Prepared with the help of the Albertina Museum, Vienna, and the State Museum of Upper Austria, Linz. Catalogue by Alfred Marks.
by Kubin, Alfred, 1877-1959.Other Authors: '; “...Marks, Alfred, writer on Upper Austria....”
Loi 2 de 1867 : donnant de loi nationale au diplôme royal déliveré à la nation par S.M. le roi avant son heureuse inauguration et couronnement, et au serment royal prêté au moment...
Published 1929“...Austria. Sovereign (1848-1916 : Franz Joseph),...”
The treaty of St. Germain; a documentary history of its territorial and political causes, with a survey of the documents of the Supreme council of the Paris peace conference, selec...
by Almond, Nina.“...Austria (1918- )....”
See additional print holdings information
Art, Design & Architecture Collection: 01/01/2014 to 01/31/2014
Additional notes to the report on "some observations on the ratio of nurses to patients" Sub-Committee on Nursing, International Hospital Congress.
Published 1931“...International Hospital Congress Vienna, Austria)...”
Wittgenstein and his impact on contemporary thought : proceedings of the Second International Wittgenstein Symposium, 29th August to 4th September 1977, Kirchberg/Wechsel (Austria)...
Published 1978“...International Wittgenstein Symposium. Kirchberg, Austria)...”
Psychoanalysis, Monotheism and Morality The Sigmund Freud Museum Symposia 2009-2011 / edited by Wolfgang Müller-Funk, Ingrid Scholz-Strasser, Herman Westerink, in collaboration wit...
Published 2013“...Sigmund Freud Museum (Vienna, Austria)...”
Full text available:
Variation and change in morphology : selected papers from the 13th International Morphology Meeting, Vienna, February 2008 / edited by Franz Rainer [and others] ; with the assistan...
Published 2010“...International Morphology Meeting Vienna, Austria)...”
Whiteheadian ethics : abstracts and papers from the ethics section of the philosophy group at the 6th International Whitehead Conference at the University of Salzburg, July 2006 /...
Published 2008“...International Whitehead Conference Salzburg, Austria)...”